Original Research Article | OPEN ACCESS

Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) formulated as an herbal toothpaste

Abere A Tavs1 , Onyeabor L Ukamaka2

1Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, PMB 1154, Benin City, 300001, Edo State, Nigeria.; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Madonna University, Elele Campus, Elele, Rivers State, Nigeria..

For correspondence:-  Abere Tavs   Email:  eseabere@yahoo.com   Tel:  +2348160599707

Published: 31 December 2023

Citation: Tavs AA, Ukamaka OL. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) formulated as an herbal toothpaste. J Sci Pract Pharm 2023; 10(1):533-542 doi: 10.47227/jsppharm.v10i1.6

© 2023 The author(s).
This is an Open Access article that uses a funding model which does not charge readers or their institutions for access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0). This license requires that reusers give credit to the creator. It allows reusers to distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon the material in any medium or format, for noncommercial purposes only. .


Purpose: The major drawback with many orthodox conventional types of toothpaste is their side effects and sometimes resistance associated with their use. It is on this basis that we investigated the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities of the leaves of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) formulated as herbal toothpaste.

Methods: Phytochemical and chromatographic screenings were investigated using standard procedures. Anti-inflammatory evaluation was carried out using egg albumin. The antimicrobial evaluation of extract of A. muricata and formulated herbal toothpaste was by agar well diffusion method against selected microorganisms using ciprofloxacin and nystatin as positive controls. The sensory and physicochemical properties of the formulated herbal toothpaste were evaluated.

Results: Phytochemical screening of A. muricata revealed the presence of tannins, cardiac glycosides and alkaloids. The anti-inflammatory activity was dose dependent. There was inhibition of activity by the crude extract and formulated herbal toothpaste containing A. muricata against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The A. muricata formulated herbal toothpaste was sweet and pleasantly smelling with good foaming ability and had a pH range of 7.24-7.92.   

Conclusion: A. muricata possess chemical constituents which could be responsible for the observed anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. These constituents when present in the formulation of toothpastes could result in more therapeutic effectiveness and reduction in resistance.




Keywords: Annona muricata, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, toothpaste

Journal Metrics
Impact Factors
» Thompson Reuters (ISI): 0.000
» H-5 index: 7 (2024)
» SCImago Journal Rank (SJR): 0.000

» Submission to first review: 07-14 days
» Submission to acceptance: 20-30 days
» Acceptance to publication: 20-30 days

Article Tools

Share this article with


2022; 9: 
2021; 8: 
2020; 7: 
2019; 6: 
2018; 5: 
1, 2.
2017; 4: 
2016; 3: 
2015; 2: 
2023; 10: 
2014; 1: