Original Research Article | OPEN ACCESS

GC-MS analysis and invitro cytotoxic activity of Syzygium aromaticum volatile oil and its major constituent - eugenol

Rose O Imade , Buniyamin A Ayinde

Departments of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, PMB 1154, Benin City, 300001, Nigeria;

For correspondence:-  Rose Imade   Email:  rose.jesuorobo@uniben.edu   Tel:  2348032444024

Published: 17 December 2021

Citation: Imade RO, Ayinde BA. GC-MS analysis and invitro cytotoxic activity of Syzygium aromaticum volatile oil and its major constituent - eugenol. J Sci Pract Pharm 2021; 8(1):432-440 doi: https://doi.org/10.47227/jsppharm.v8i1.3

© 2021 The author(s).
This is an Open Access article that uses a funding model which does not charge readers or their institutions for access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0) and the Budapest Open Access Initiative (http://www.budapestopenaccessinitiative.org/read), which permit unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited..


Purpose: Cancer is one of the leading causes of death globally. Syzygium aromaticum flower buds have found application as a spice and for medicinal purposes around the world. In this research, we investigated the essential oil and its major constituent, eugenol for cytotoxic activity against breast (AU 565) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cell lines.

Methods: The oil was extracted and tested for cytotoxic effect on brine shrimp of Artemia salina (10-1000 μg/mL) and against the cell lines. Chromatographic separation of the oil was carried out and the resulting fractions screened for growth inhibitory activity using radicles of Sorghum bicolor seeds (0.25 mg/mL) as well as cytotoxicity on the cell lines with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The oil and active subfraction were subjected to GCMS studies.

Results: Our results demonstrated that the essential oil showed cytotoxic activities against A. salina nauplii, with LC50 of 143.17 μg/mL obtained. Growth inhibitory activity of the fractions against S. bicolor seed radicles was remarkable with subfraction 2 showing high potency. The oil and active subfraction possessed moderate cytotoxicity on AU 565 cell line but no inhibition was observed with HeLa cells. Eugenol was revealed to be the major constituent of the oil (64.84%) and was increased to 82.62% in the subfraction.               

Conclusion: These results suggest that S. aromaticum oil and its major constituent, eugenol possess moderate cytotoxic properties against AU 565 cells but not HeLa cells. This necessitates further investigation against other cancer cell lines.


Keywords: Cytotoxic, AU565, HeLa, volatile oil, Syzygium aromaticum, eugenol

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